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Tools and Capabilities - ACT Node

For a full,searchable listing of ANFF capabilities/tools (all 8 nodes) click here.


Quick links to the following:



Electron Beam Lithography (EBL-Elionix)

Electron Beam Lithography (EBL-Raith)

Mask Aligner EVG

Mask Aligner SUSS (in-kind)

Nano-imprint Lithography (NIL)

Hot-Embossing (HE)

3D Focused Ion Beam Milling (FIB)


Chemical Vapour Deposition

Metal Organic Chemical Vapour Deposition (MOCVD GaAs)

Metal Organic Chemical Vapour Deposition (MOCVD GaN)

Metal Organic Chemical Vapour Deposition (MOCVD in-kind)

Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition (PECVD)

Plasma-assisted Atomic Layer Deposition (P-ALD)



Physical Vapour Deposition

Sputter Coater

Electron Beam Themal Evaporator (EB-Evap)

Thermal Evaporator (TE)

SEM Desktop Sputter


Dry Etching

Inductively Coupled Plasma Etching (ICP-CL)

Inductively Coupled Plasma Etching (ICP-F)

Barrel Etcher/Plasma Asher

Reactive Ion Etching (RIE in-kind)



Metrology and Characterization

Focused Ion Beam (FIB)

Scanning Electron Microscope with Cathodoluminescence (SEM-CL)


Surface Profiler

Hall Effect System (in-kind)

Raman Imaging (in-kind)

X-ray Diffractometer (XRD in-kind)

WiTec Microscope Scanning Near-feild Optical Microscope (SNOM in-kind)

Atomic Force Microscope (AFM)



Implanter (AFAiiR)

Ion Implanters

High Energy

Low Engery

Rutherford Back Scattering



Modification and Packaging

Rapid Thermal Annealer

Flip-chip Bonder

Wire Bonding




Flagship Tools


Electron Beam Lithogrphy (EBL) - Elionix

Is a state-of-the-art electron beam Lithography tool recently installed at the ANFF-ACT Node.


Some of its Specifications and Capabilities include:

Acceleration voltage 125kV

Beam current 5pA - 100nA

Minimum beam diameter φ1.7nm

Minimum line width 5nm

Scan rate : 100MHz max(10nsec)

Exposure area X: 210mm, Y: 210mm

Field stitching accuracy ±10nm

Overlay accuracy ±10nm


It is capable of exposing e-beam resist with feature sizes down to 10nm. Exposure is done by scanning an electron beam over a sample defined by an input design file, thereby eliminating the use of hard masks.  It features very fast loading/unloading– less than six minutes. There are five different variety of sample holders available with this tool to cover entire range of sample sizes from 1 cm x 1 cm small pieces to 7” mask holder, including multiple 2” wafers. A Spicer field cancellation system provides a highly stable electromagnetic environment for the tool. The first-order consideration of exposure time is proportional to the pattern size and the overall writing area making the tool ideal for fine features over large areas. Exposure doses differ by resist types and pattern density. There are several pieces of supporting equipment/software for Elionix users like an Olympus pre-alignment microscope adjacent to the tool. It allows us to easily measure the sample alignment mark locations relative to the stage as well as observe the sample after development. There is a design layout Beamer software package available to convert designs, perform logic operations, and proximity effect correction. Additionally, the tool software used for exposure will also provide a design conversion option for basic designs and an estimate of the required exposure time. 


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EBLRElectron Beam Lithography (EBL) - Raith 150


Electron beam (e-beam) lithography is most suited for prototyping due to the combination of flexibility and patterning accuracy.


Our RAITH 150 electron-beam lithography is a versatile 30kV system that allows the control of the e-beam to expose dedicated resists to create lithographic patterns well into the sub-µm range.


Feature sizes smaller than 20 nm are frequently exposed and we are able to handle sample sizes from a few mm to 8-inch wafers.


Hardware and software automation allow easy and repeatable multilayer exposures.


The system is equipped with FBMS exposure technology with ‘zero-stitching-error’ approach for patterns that can be from several millimeters up to centimeters long, while maintaining lateral dimensions below 100nm up to micrometers.


Electron Beam is services on Dec. 10, 2015 and the latest beam calibration is available here.


As part of our e-beam facility we support both positive and negative tone resist processes.


Positive resist PMMA formulated with 495K & 950K molecular weight resins in 2% and 4% anisole respectively is available for high resolution patterning.


High sensitivity ZEP520 is most often employed for more dry etch resistant masking.


Negative tone e-beam resist maN 2405 is suitable for precision masking at the exposed areas.


Further dilutions in anisole for all three available e-beam resists can be requested.


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Ebeam EvaporatorElectron Beam Thermal Evaporator (E-Beam) -

Temescal BJD-2000


Our Temescal BJD-2000 E-beam/Thermal Evaporator system features a six pocket E-gun and one-position thermal evaporation.


The system also has an extended chamber for a larger distance between source and sample to avoid excessive heating during thick metallisation making the system very suitable for lift-off processes.


The system is dedicated for ohmic and Schottky contacts in III-V compound semiconductors.


The vacuum consists of a scroll pump and a cryo-pump allowing for a vacuum range in the mid 10-7 mBar.


Available metals are: Al, Au, Cr, Ge, Hf, Nb, Ni, Pd, Pt, Ta, and Ti.


Dielectric materials are not authorised.


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Electron Beam Thermal Evaporator (E-Beam Old)


The system is used to deposit dielectrics such as ITO, SiO2, MgF2 etc.




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Focused Ion BeamFocused Ion Beam (FIB) - FEI Helios 600 NanoLab


The 30kV e-beam of our FEI Helios 600 NanoLab allows for very high resolution SEM imaging (0.9nm) alongside other ion-beam features like 3D simple milling, 3D reconstruction (slicing & SEM) and TEM lamellae preparation (also available in automatic mode).


The system is also available for ion beam deposition of Au, Pt and SiO2 as well as reactive ion beam etching with the addition of XeF2 (SiO2) or I2 (III-V).


Additionally EDX, EBIC, EBSD and STEM analysis techniques are available.


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Hot-embossing (HE) - EVG 520HE


The NIL tool (EVG 520HE) offers the possibility of creating sub-µm using a non-transparent mould.
Lateral resolution is up to 200 nm. Patterning can be done on a 2” or 4” wafer for faster replication of nanostructures.

The sample can be heated to 500oC while bonding.


This tool is widely used for bonding applications such as wafer-to-wafer, resist-to-resist and resist-to-wafer.


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Inductively Coupled Plasma

Etching -III-V/II-VI (ICP-CP) - Samco 400iP


The ICP-RIE (Samco 400iP) features load-lock, a heated electrode (200oC max), He backside cooling and sample size up to 4” wafer.

ICP source allows controlled etching while maintaining low ion bombardment, resulting in lower plasma-induced damage.

Dedicated to compound semiconductors only.

The available gases are Cl2, BCl3, SiCl4, Ar, H2, and O2.

Capability: common semiconductors (GaAs & InP), wide band-gap materials (GaN)



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Inductively Coupled Plasma Etching - Silicon

and other thin films (ICP-F) Samco 400iP



The ICP-RIE (Samco 400iP) features load-lock, a water-cooled electrode (20oC), He backside cooling and sample size up to 4” substrate.

ICP source allows controlled etching while maintaining low ion bombardment, resulting in lower plasma-induced damage.

Optical end-point detector for precise control of etching.

Dedicated to Silicon, polymers and other oxide/nitride materials.

The available gases  are CH4, CHF3, SF6, H2, Ar, and O2

Capability: Si based (Si, SiO2& Si3N4), oxides (ITO, TiO2& ZnO), polymers (BCB & SU-8)




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Mask Aligner EVG 620


The mask aligner (EVG 620) operates in the i-line range and is suitable for optical lithography down to 1µm. It is suitable for sample size of few mm to a 4" wafer.

It features top-side alignment optics and Deep-UV exposure capability.

We offer variety of positive and negative photoresists such as AZ1512, AZ5214, ma-P 1210, ma-N 1420 etc. to suit particular application.




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Metal Organic Chemical Vapour Deposition (MOCVD 1) - Aixtron Closed Coupled Showerhead


This system is a Closed Coupled Showerhead (CCS) model from Aixtron. In that configuration, precursors and gases are introduced vertically into the process chamber through an array of very small holes in the reactor ceiling, just like a showerhead.


The design of the showerhead and its close proximity to the heated wafers ensure the gases are distributed very uniformly throughout the whole wafer carrier surface.

The system is capable of growing 3 x 2-inch wafers in each run and equipped with the LayTech Epi-TT, an optical in-situ metrology tool that allows the user to monitor all essential properties of the growing layers, such as growth rate, film thickness, stoichiometry changes and morphology, and also the precise surface temperature.
The benefits of the in-situ process monitoring tool include quick identification of process deviations, optimisation of the film quality, improvement of yield and the fast tracking of new processes.


This system is dedicated to As- and P-based materials.

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MOCVD - in-kind

Metal Organic Chemical Vapour Deposition Reactor (MOCVD 2)


Metal Organic Chemical Vapour Deposition (MOCVD), also known as Metal Organic Vapour Phase Epitaxy (MOVPE), is an epitaxial growth technique of materials, especially compound semiconductors, from the surface reaction of organic compounds or metal-organics and metal hydrides containing the required chemical elements.


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Metal Organic Chemical Vapour Deposition (MOCVD 3) - Aixtron Closed Coupled Showerhead


This system is identical to MOCVD1 and is CCS model from Aixtron where design allows an excellent growth uniformity throughout the whole wafer carrier surface.

Similarly the system is capable of growing 3 x 2-inch wafers and it uses NH3 as a gas source to produce N.


This system is dedicated to grow N-based materials. 




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Hot Embosser

Nano-imprint Lithography (NIL)- EVG 620 NIL


The NIL tool (EVG 620) offers the possibility of creating sub-µm patterns in nano-imprint mode (UV curing mode) through a transparent mould.


Lateral resolution is up to 100 nm. Patterning can be done on a 2” or 4” wafer for faster replication of nanostructures.





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P-ALDPlasma-assisted Atomic Layer Deposition (PA-ALD) - PicoSun-Sunale


The PicoSun-Sunale thermal/plasma assisted atomic layer deposition tool (PA-ALD) has gained enormous popularity among our users and it usage has surpassed that of the ICP or PECVD tools.


Available materials to be deposited are: Al2O3, TiO2 and TiN, ZnO, HfO2, Ta2O5 and TaN, and SiO2.


We are looking to fit a silver (Ag) source in the PicoSolid source making it possible to deposit multiple layers of pure metallic silver films.






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PECVDPlasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition (PECVD) - Plasmalab 100 Dual Frequency


This chemical vapour deposition system features a load-lock, a very high electrode temperature (700°C) and the use of dual frequency plasma generators.


The high T-range allows for obtaining good quality dielectric films like SiNx and SiOx with reduced hydrogen incorporation while the available He gas can be used to deposit amorphous and poly-crystalline Si.


The dual frequency generator allow tuning of the mechanical/residual stress of the deposited SiNx layers between tensile and compressive strain and, alternatively, to choose stress-free layers.


The system is fitted with a TEOS capability (terta-ethyl-ortho-silicate) enabling high quality SiO2 deposition at even lower temperatures (150°C) - this capability is unique in Australia!


The available gases are: SiH4, NH3, N2, N2O and He. The system is meant for depositing SiOx @ ~55nm/min, SiNx @ 15nm/min, α-Si at 300°C and poly-Si at 500-600°C @ 4-6nm/min.


A comprehensive SiNx study carried out by the Node was published in 2012:





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Reactive Ion Etching (RIE) Oxford Plasmalab 80


The RIE tool, Oxford Plasmalab 80 is mainly used to etch SiOx and SiNx with photoresist as a mask.
The available gases are CHF3, Ar, and O2.











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SEM-CLScanning Electron Microscope with Cathodoluminescence (SEM-CL) - FEI Verios


The FEI Verios has a field emission gun and a mono-chromator suitable for ultra-high resolution imaging.


In addition to the Everhart-Thornley and in-lens detector, the new SEM-CL boasts several new electron detectors, such as retractable directional backscattering detector(R-DBS), a mirror detector and an in-column detector suitable for imaging at low energy.


This instrument is equipped with an Oxford electron dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectrometer with an 80mm2 silicon drift detector currently installed.


In early 2015, a Gatan MonoCL4 Elite cathodoluminescence (CL) system was installed on this instrument enabling CL mapping and spectroscopic studies at room temperature and low temperatures.


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SputterSputter Coater system - AJA


The sputter system features microwave and DC sputtering with six guns available and a load-lock allowing a maximum wafer size of 100mm.


A large range of metals and dielectrics are available:


 •  Metals - Ag, Al, Au, Co, Cr, Cu, Er, Fe, Ge, ITO, La, Mg, Mo, Nb, Ni, Pd, Pt, Sn, Ta, Te, Ti, TiN, W

 •  Dielectrics - Al2O3, CdO, Er2O3, GeO2, HfO2, MgO, Si3N4, SiO2, SnO2, TeO2, TiO2, ZnO

 •  Others - AlN, BN, CaF2, MgF2, Si, WSi2, ZnS, ZnSe


The system features co-sputtering from two targets and oxygen monitoring during oxide sputtering.


Recently a lift-off process based on a negative resist (Ma-N 1420) has been developed to be used with the sputter system.


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SUSS MA-6 - Mask Aligner

The mask aligner (SUSS) operates in the i-line range and is suitable for optical lithography down to 1µm. It issuitable for sample size of few mmto a 4" wafer.

It features top & bottom-side alignment optics and Deep-UV exposure capability.

We offer variety of positive and negative photoresists such as AZ1512,AZ5214, ma-P 1210, ma-N 1420 etc. to suit particular application.



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Thermal EvaporatorThermal Evaporator (TE) - Kurt Lesker NANO 36


The Kurt Lesker NANO 36 system is configured as a thermal evaporator featuring a user friendly interface and offers the possibility of having up to three different materials in the three boats provided.


The NANO 36 is designed to accommodate most evaporation processes and already various metals have been deposited using this system like gold, copper, aluminium and zinc.


Also chromium is able to be deposited using a relatively high current. For gold deposition a boat is supplied to users as well as a certain amount of gold (at cost).


A range of materials are available - Ag, Al, Cu, SiO2, ITO



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Thermal ALD - Cambridge


This system is used to deposit oxides such as Al2O3, ZnO, TiO2 etc.



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Other Small Processing Tools - ACT Node




Barrel EtcherBarrel Etcher - PVA TePla


A high pressure plasma system to descum and strip resists in O2-plasma and other organic materials.


The low power feature allows footage removal after resist development to obtain clean patterns.


With the addition of CF4 combined stripping of resists and SiNx/SiOx is possible.


This machine is capable of handling up to two 4" wafers or one 6" wafer.


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EllipsometerEllipsometer - JA Woollam M-2000D


The JA Woollam M2000D ellipsometer at the ANFF ACT Node allows accurate measurements of refractive index and thickness of various types of layers spanning dielectrics, semiconductors and thin metal films. Some of the system features are:

 • Spectral range from UV to mid-infrared (193-1690nm) enabling measurement on dielectrics and most common GaN, GaAs and InP-based layers;

 • Automatic angles from 45 to 90°;

 • All wavelengths acquired simultaneously;

 • Typical data acquisitions times 1 to 5 seconds;

 • Automated Sample Translation for wafer mapping up to 150mm;

 • Focused beam size to ~300µm.


The system is supported by powerful software to analyse data with possibility of various models such as Cauchy or Tauc-Lorentz models.


The system resolution is as small as 1nm (semiconductor native oxide can be measured).


This ellipsometer compliments the existing instrument at the WA Node that has a spectral range of 2-20µm.


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Flip-chip BonderFlip-chip Bonder - Fineplacer Lambda


Flip Chip bonding is a technology that allows for bonding various type of devices/chips onto different substrates, like bonding a laser/LED onto a Si-chip, to add optoelectronic functions to the well-established microelectronic and Si-based photonic circuitry that lack active devices (lasers and detectors) operating at the telecommunication wavelength of 1.55μm.


The ANFF ACT Node Fineplacer Lambda tool allows an alignment accuracy of 0.5μm, and a similar tool is available at the WA Node.


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Rapid Thermal AnnealerRapid Thermal Annealer (RTA) - Qualiflow

JetFirst 100


Thermal annealing processes are commonly used to remove implantation damage, activate species and alloy materials (ohmic contacts of metal on semiconductors).


Thanks to the use of halogen lamps this RTA features a very fast heating cycle (typically a few hundreds °C in a few seconds).


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SEM SputterSEM Desktop Sputter - Denton Desk V


To aid SEM inspection of non-conductive materials a conductive layer is required to avoid electrons charging in the SEM column.


Typically 2nm of Au/Pd or Au is sputtered using this system prior to SEM analysis.


The system allows for sputtering under a tilted angle and rotation and can handle sample sizes up to 30mm in diameter.


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Surface ProfilerSurface Profiler - Dektak


This mechanical surface profiler allows very accurate 1D step height measurements.


The analysis capability also allows for measuring wafer bow (to calculate mechanical stress) and 1D roughness.


Available stylus sizes are 12.5µm and 2µm and vertical resolution is as small as 1.1nm.


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Vacuum Oven




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Wire Bonder (WB) - Westbond 747677E


The wire bonder Westbond 747677E, is capable of doing Ultrasonics and Thermosonics ball and wedge bonding. It features 90° bonding tool for deep access along with standard 45° tool. Currently available wires are Au and Al up to 50 micron thickness.



For training and use contact Kaushal Vora, Operations and Processes Manager.



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In-kind Tools - ACT Node




Hall EffectHall Effect System


We have a variety of electrical characterisation facilities for electrical and opto-electronic devices, and also the determination of the electrical properties of various materials that includes temperature dependent I-V, C-V, Hall Effect, 4-point probe, DLTS and a semiconductor parameter analyser.


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Ion Implanters - High Energy, Low Energy and RBS


For full details on the Ion Implanters please have a look at the Australian Facility for Advanced Ion Implanter Research website here


The High Energy Implanter features a 1.7MV tandem accelerator incorporating a 100kV injector with a SNICS II negative ion sputter source.


Used for implanting ions in the energy range 15-100keV (using the injector only) and 200keV to several MeV (depending on selected ion charge state).


Most ions are available but implant fluences may be limited in some cases.


Typical samples sizes are a few cm square but wafers up to 100mm diameter can be accommodated (150mm wafer chamber currently under construction).


Smaller samples can be heated to 700°K or cooled to 77°K during implantation.


The Low Energy Implanter features a 175kV accelerator with a SNICS II negative ion sputter source.


Used for ion-implanting materials with energetic ions in the energy range 10keV to 175keV.


Typical samples sizes are a few cm square but wafers up to 100mm diameter can be accommodated.


Many ions are available, including most standard dopants.


Smaller samples can be heated to 700°K or cooled to 77°K during implantation.


The Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) system features a 1.7MV tandem accelerator incorporating a 60kV injector with an Alphatross ion source.


Used for ion-beam analysis of materials with energetic He+ and H+ beams (typically 1-3 MeV).


Standard techniques include Rutherford backscattering and channelling analysis (RBS-C) and elastic recoil detection (ERD) for hydrogen profiling.


Particle-induce x-ray analysis (PIXE) is currently under development. Typical sample sizes range from 5mm square to several centimetres square.


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Raman Imaging System


The Renishaw inVia Reflex was purchased in August 2014 and features motorized optics to allow ease of use and robust alignment. It also has three excitation wavelengths:

 • ‘Green’ - 532nm;

 • ‘Red’ - 633nm;

 • ‘Near infra-red’ - 785nm;


and two optical stations:

 • Confocal optical microscope with 5x, 20x, 50x and 100x objective lenses;

 • Free space microscope (Long working distance 20x and regular x20 objective lenses only) for larger, non-flat samples.


Other features include:

 • Spot size down to ~0.76µm (for 532nm using 100x);

 • Encoded stage with a step size of 100nm (to allow Raman mapping down to 250nm and confocal depth profiling);

 • Peltier cooled CCD (no water or N2 needed) high efficiency spectrograph;

 • Motorized neutral density filters to allow 16 power levels from 0.00005% to 100%;

 • Fast Raman imaging to allow maps of >10,000 spectra to be taken in less than 4 minutes and;

 • High-performance edge filter to allow low wavenumber measurements down to ~30cm-1 for the 532 nm laser (down to 100 cm-1 for the 633 nm and 785 nm lasers).


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WiTec Microscope

WiTec alpha300 S


The alpha300 S is a user friendly Scanning Near-field Optical Microscope (SNOM) that combines in a unique way the advantages of SNOM, Confocal Microscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy in a single instrument. Switching between the different modes can easily be done by rotating the objective turret. The alpha300 S uses unique micro-fabricated SNOM-cantilever sensors for optical microscopy with spatial resolution below the diffraction limit


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X-ray DiffractometerX-ray Diffractometer


X-ray diffraction is a non-destructive analytical technique which reveals information about the crystalline structure, chemical composition and physical properties of materials and thin films by studying the scattered intensity of an X-ray beam interacting with a sample as a function of incident and scattered angle, polarization, and wavelength or energy.


Analytical techniques include rocking curve, reciprocal space mapping, reflectivity, grazing incident XRD, strain/stress, texture, micro-diffraction and powder analyses.
















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WiTec Microscope

Atomic Force Microscope - AFM


The atomic force microsopy system from the Swiss company Nanaosurf is the model CoreAFM. The compact AFM system includes a flexure-guided scanner, XYZ sample stage, camera, active vibration isolation table, and airflow shielding in a single all-in-one unit. Many of the essential functions of modern AFM are integral components of the CoreAFM system. The PC based user interface provides access to standard operating modes such as static force, lateral force, standard spectroscopy, standard lithography, dynamic force, phase Contrast, force Modulation or magnetic force. The system also includes advanced options such as a lithography and conductive AFM mode. (key parameters for sample size: diameter 100 mm, max. sample height 10 mm; scan range XYZ: 100 μm x 100 μm x 12 μm)





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